KEOL Broadcasting Manual


KEOL Vision Statement (i)

KEOL’s vision is to be the most listened to radio station in the Grande Ronde Valley and to be the primary connection between EOU and the local Community


 KEOL Mission Statement (ii)

At KEOL we strive to:

  • Meet our listeners’ needs during every broadcast.
  • Maintain the highest quality broadcast by being professional and acting with integrity at all times.
  • Be forward looking in our use of technology, especially in expanding our ability to reach listeners on the web.
  • Reach a point of self-sustainability through the aggressive pursuit of underwriting opportunities and long-term community relationships.
  • Support free form media.
  • Take advantage of our status as DJs to better our station, campus, and community.
  • Be respected by students, campus organizations, and the community by positively contributing to each of these groups.
  • Provide educational opportunities to students, managerial opportunities to DJs, and personal growth and experience opportunities to staff.


Core Policies

Requirements to be a DJ

In order for an individual to become a DJ at KEOL-FM, they must fulfill the following requirements:

  • The candidate must be at least sixteen years old.
  • Complete training provided by station manager or program director. Training will allow candidate to learn new skills and how programming will work when DJing.
  • Uphold all KEOL, EOU and FCC rules, policies and procedures at all times.
  • Finally, the candidate must be approved for the air by the station manager.



Selection of Air Spots

New show times will be allocated using service point rankings beginning with the DJ with the highest number of service points. A show time (or sub status) will be chosen by each DJ rotating through the list until all show time slots are filled or until everyone has as many shows as they want. If a DJ selects a show, they are responsible for it (see section 1.7.1 – 1.7.3 for show responsibilities).


Available Show Time Slots

Show times are selected at the first staff meeting (see section 3.14.1) of each academic term. At that time, all show times are vacated unless a DJ has successfully challenged (see 1.6.1) to retain a show time prior to the meeting. Show times vacated, or those remaining vacant during the term, will be filled based on service points, then on a first come first serve basis. DJs with more than one show time may be required to give up a time slot (of their choice) to provide air time for new DJs at the end of each FM 1 Broadcasting course.


Challenging to Keep Show Times

If a DJ wishes to keep a show time for the following term, they must submit their request in writing to the station manager or program director and get approval prior to the first staff meeting of the term. This policy does not apply to FM-1 graduates. Do not delay in your request! The excuse “I couldn’t get a hold of management” will not be accepted.


Disputing a Challenger

If a DJ with a higher service point ranking wishes to claim a successfully challenged show time, a conference will be scheduled with the station manager and program director for determination. Management has the final say after both sides have been given fair time to justify their position. Requests are limited to only one show time. DJs will have two weeks after show times are selected to claim of a successfully challenged show time. The same procedure will be followed for current EOU students wishing to claim a show time held by someone with more service points but lower on the DJ hierarchy (see 1.1.0).


Missed Shows and Subs

KEOL has more live DJs than any other radio station in the area. This is our bankable asset! Therefore, unexcused absences cannot be tolerated! Just because KEOL uses automation when a live DJ is unable to staff the studio it is not an excuse for absenteeism.


Acceptable Notification

If a DJ can’t do a show or needs to notify management for any other reason, the preferred method of notification is email ( Management may also be contacted in person or by phone (541-962-3698) during office hours.


Notifications for Missing a Show

Notification for a missed show 24 hours prior to the show time will not need an explanation for the absence. Notification for a missed show less than 24 hours prior to the show time must provide management with a justified explanation. Management will review all cases and determine if the DJ will be excused.


Sub Opportunities

DJs who know they will miss a show should give others an opportunity to sub. This should be done though facebook, email, or twitter.


Show Content


Maximum Rotation

Maximum rotation for any song will be once per show and once per four hour time period encompassing other KEOL programming. An exception is that the same song by different artists may be played within the same show with management notification. For example, “Blue Monday” by New Order may be followed by “Blue Monday” by Orgy. No more than four songs by the same artist are allowed during a show without management notification. The DJ must notify management prior to the show using acceptable notification (see section 1.7.2). This extension does not apply to the maximum rotation rule for a song once in a four hour period.


Play Requests

Requests may be taken, but a DJ is not required to play any requested song. The DJ is responsible for the content of the requested song. Discretion should be used when playing requests. See 2.3.1 for more information.


On Air Phone System

Use of the on-air phone system is forbidden to all DJs unless they have successfully completed the proper training and follow correct procedures. See management for details. Anyone using the on air phone jacks without completing the proper training will be disciplined appropriately. This may include immediate dismissal from the staff for an indefinite period of time as determined by management.


Station ID, Underwriting and Promos

Station IDs, PSAs, donor announcements (underwriting) or other selected materials are to be played/announced at or within two minutes of the time specified in the log. DJs must contact management if their show’s programming requires accommodations to the scheduled announcements/programming.


Approval for Air Play

KEOL requires that all new music, promos, PSAs and underwriting be approved by the station manager or program director prior to airplay and/or placement in the studio.


Additional Information on Air

Any information spoken on the air other than public information (i.e. newspaper clippings, record/CD insert information, campus information) is subject to consideration by the station manager or program director before being read over the air. Uncertainty whether a particular piece of information is considered public information should be presented to management before broadcasting. Proper acknowledgment or credit to all sources of information must be provided (i.e., “according to MSNBC…” or “ is reporting highs in the 100’s”).


Verbal Abuse and Negative Comments on Air

A speaker may not be verbally abusive or make negative comments concerning KEOL, management, staff, equipment or EOU over the air. This includes comments about other music formats, missed shows or any other kinds of frustration. Violating this rule will result in disciplinary action, including removal from the air for the rest of the term, a deduction of 15 service points and denial of all service points for that term.


Spoken Profanity

Spoken profanity during a broadcast is a violation of federal law set forth by the FCC. Fines of up to $10,000 and a prison sentence may be imposed upon the offender (DJ). Disciplinary action by Eastern Oregon University, which may include probation or suspension, will also be imposed. This policy also applies to guests and callers. DJs are responsible for their actions! NO SPOKEN PROFANITY IS ALLOWED OVER THE AIR. (Refer to 5.1.3 for penalty measures.) An exception to this policy could be made in regards to callers and guests. The severity of disciplinary actions may be softened but only at management’s discretion. However this is only within KEOL. The FCC and EOU may choose to impose their own disciplinary actions.


Recorded Profanity on the Air

Many of KEOL’s CDs and albums have been screened and marked for songs containing profanity. *WARNING* not every song with profanities has been marked. Between the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m., songs with profanities can not to be aired, although appropriately edited versions may be aired in their stead. Between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., selections with profanities are permitted. DJs on the air at those times are required to read a disclaimer (ID #499). This must be read as indicated at 10:00 p.m., 12:00 a.m., and 3:00 a.m. whether or not selections with profanities will be played, although it may be read more often during 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. if the DJ chooses.


Show Content Complaints

Complaints about show content should be referred to the station manager or program director. The office number (541-962- 3698) or email ( may be offered. Remember to always be polite on the phone.


Late Night Air Play

Songs that have been marked “Late Night Airplay” may or may not contain noticeable profanities, but the content is still not suitable for airplay other than the hours of 10pm to 6:00 a.m.


Unmarked Songs

If a DJ finds an unmarked song that has profanity, it cannot be played. If unsure, management should be consulted. Album and CD inserts, as well as studio internet access, can be used to look up song lyrics. However, these are not always completely accurate. The DJ is responsible for knowing the content. There is no excuse that will be accepted for a slipped profanity.


Use of Personal Material

DJs are welcome to bring music from home to play on the air. They are responsible for the content at all times.



Profanity includes, but may not be limited to:

  • F*ck, sh*t, c*nt, c*cksucker, m*therf*cker, t*ts and any variation of these words.
  • Any ethnic, racial or bigoted words or phrases.
  • Any offensive slang used to describe the gay or lesbian community.
  • Any word that describes, in an offensive manner, any sexual organ, sexual activity, bodily function or excretory functions.


Don’t Say It!

Any kind of profane word must never be spoken on the air. This includes words such as piss, sucks, or blows when used as an adjective (i.e., “this sucks/blows”) to refer to “this sucks dick” or referring to someone as a “dick.” DJs may speak the following words if they are found in a song title or band name, but never in general dialogue: asshell, and damn.


Editorial or Political Comments and Religious Content

KEOL is a non-commercial, educational, college radio station. As such, the station has no political or editorial bias. DJs wishing to editorialize must have comments approved with management before airing them. Editorial comments must be submitted by email. An approved copy will then be returned for reading on the air. The approved copy will have both the station manager and program director signatures along with a disclaimer. The disclaimer and editorial must be read word for word on the air.


Political Endorsements

The endorsement of any political party, candidate, initiative or political movement is strictly prohibited. This includes campus elections and is especially true during the election season. KEOL will allow candidates to speak and share their platform if, and only if, all candidates are given an equal amount of time to speak. If one candidate is unable to participate, all candidates are forbidden on the air. This will allow the DJs, KEOL, and EOU, to stay neutral. Again, endorsement (support) of any kind is strictly prohibited!


Religious Content

Texts from any religion may not be read or played over the air on KEOL at anytime. KEOL is funded and represented by a diverse student population and therefore will not allow the reading or playing of any religious scripture over the air. This includes any kind of ministerial or proselytizing on the air. However religious music or PSAs from religious organizations may be aired, as long as the DJ’s announcements or the PSA itself does not contain any scriptural passage or proselytizing.


General Policies


DJ Conduct and Professionalism

KEOL’s DJs and staff are expected to act in a professional manner in the station, on the air, at any KEOL sponsored events or in any kind of public setting where KEOL might be represented (i.e., “Hello I’m DJ SoAndSo on KEOL”). DJs that act in an unprofessional manner, as determined by the station manager, program director or student codes of conduct, may face disciplinary action which may include permanent removal from KEOL.


Phone Etiquette

DJs are expected to be polite on the phone. Callers may be rude, but DJs are never permitted to be rude back. Rude calls should be politely handled, then noted by time and other necessary information in the program log. If the DJ receives a call that makes them feel unsafe, it should be reported to campus security. Calls from record companies or promoters should be referred to the station manager. The station manager can be reached on the office phone, during posted office hours.

Operator Responsibilities

The DJ signed on the log is solely responsible for any and all occurrences in the KEOL building. This includes the actions of guests. DJs will be charged, fined and/or disciplined for any preventable damages that occur while they are the current signed operator. This may include removal from the air. DJs are expected to keep the KEOL facilities clean and orderly. Leaving messes will lead to loss of privileges. Anyone leaving a mess, not putting media away properly or any other activity that leaves the station disorderly may face disciplinary action.

Problems While on Air/Log

Any problems that occur should be written in the comments section of the log. For example, “The studio was a mess when I got here.” If you believe the problem is significant, call the station manager, program director or the facility advisor. For example, if one of the CD players does not work, write it down. If the mixing board doesn’t work, call the station manager. If you find a beer bottle in the studio, write it down. If the DJ that was on before you is belligerent and/or appears intoxicated and refuses to leave, call campus security then the station manager. The station manager should be contacted upon suspicion of any illicit or station prohibited activity.


Station Admittance

Station management, the program director, faculty advisor and the DJ currently signed on the log have the right to ask anyone to leave the station for any reason. However the DJ may not request management, the program director or faculty advisor to leave the building. Anyone not leaving when requested, may face disciplinary action, and security will be called.


Station Identification (ID)

The station ID for KEOL is “K-E-O-L La Grande.” No other ID is acceptable. The call letters should be said clearly and slowly. You may add to the ID on either side (before or after) but “K-E-O-L La Grande” must be together (i.e., “You’re listening to Eastern’s Livewire, K-E-O-L La Grande, the valley’s best radio station”). The FCC requires the ID to be given as close to the top of the hour as possible. KEOL requires the ID to be given within two minutes of the top and bottom of each hour (xx:00 and xx:30). DJs should choose song selections and timing wisely. For example, do not begin an extended song that will exceed the allotted time to do a station ID. An official ID is also required when the station signs on/off the air and is included in the sign on/sign off text. KEOL is very relaxed on programming requirements compared to other radio stations (including other colleges); therefore, this policy is strictly enforced.


Program Logs

Program logs are an FCC document and must be treated with the utmost respect and attention to detail. All program logs must be filled out correctly, including name, date and time. Real names must be used, not DJ handles. Absolutely no other writing (song requests, messages, etc.) may be written on a program log. If there is no scratch paper in the studio use an extra play list. If something isn’t understandable, ask.



Playlists are mandatory for all DJs during all shows. Please include on google forms all songs played during your time. Playlists are due before the start of the DJs next show. If undone playlists become a habit, the DJ may face disciplinary action. All entries are required for the playlist. DJs are allowed to use their DJ handle or show name on playlists.


Emergency Alert System (EAS)

EAS tests are required by the FCC and are very serious. The FCC expects the DJ running the board to know how to do this, but we now have an EAS machine which does things automatically. Do not fight the test since the system is already made to override any show that might be going through our transmitter. The EAS machines should not be touched or tampered with in any way. Failure to do so will result in a permanent band of the KEOL building. EAS tests and logs are of crucial importance to the operations & licsensing for KEOL. The EAS machine spits out a reciet when a test is done automatically and should not be touched. Only the Program Director and the Station Manager can cut these receipts.


Sign On/Sign Off Procedures


KEOL 91.7 FM La Grande

Do not perform any of these tasks if SAM is up and running or there is dead air (no sound or static on the air). Just begin your show as normal.

  • Turn the transmitter on and allow transmitter 15 minutes to warm up (the black switch in the lower-left corner). Do these from dead air.
  • After transmitter is warmed up, press F1 then F2 to get the display to show the necessary meter reading.
  • Read the sign-on ID (#500) in the folder. Read the sign-on exactly as it is printed. Use of light bed music is OK.
  • Begin show.
  • Remember to keep logs in order.



Only proceed if SAM is not operating…

  • Stop the last song and/or make any closing comments.
  • Read the sign off ID (#500). The sign-off must be read exactly as it is printed. Light bed music is OK, though there should be nothing on after the sign-off has been read.
  • Turn off the transmitter (the black switch in lower-left corner).
  • Call the station manager or program director to inform them that SAM is down.
  • Leave on hallway lights.
  • Shut the front door securely.
  • If the DJ does not feel safe, a security escort to car or dorm may be requested.



Take all responsibilities seriously while being a DJ or staff member of KEOL. Falsification on any KEOL document, email or any statement or communication will result in disciplinary action and possible dismissal from the KEOL Staff.


Notices and Policy Changes

Any new notices, changes in rules or announcements from management will be sent by email. Notices will be posted one week prior to the effective date. It is the DJ’s responsibility to read these notices and take heed of them as they will apply to each DJ. “I didn’t know” is not acceptable. It is each DJ’s responsibility to check emails and to ask management when questions arise.


Public Service Announcements (PSAs)

PSAs are located in the PSA folder and PSA CD folder. DJs must keep the PSAs in the order as they appear in each folder. The program director or station manager must approve all PSAs placed in the folder. If the log specifies a specific PSA, you must read that PSA. If the log does not specify a PSA, pick one and then log its number.


PSA Levels

KEOL has three types of PSAs: 100-level PSAs from the university and local area, 300- level national PSAs received from Radio Round Up and 500-level PSAs found on CD. All PSAs will be within one of these levels in the appropriate folder and are the only approved PSAs for the top and bottom of the hour.



Visitors are welcome to stop by while you are on the air as long as they do not interfere with the operation of the station. Remember, the DJ signed on the air has the right to ask anyone to leave the station.


Number of Guests

Management wants to give every resource possible to DJs to provide unmatched programming on KEOL. Therefore, the number of guests in the studio will be left to the DJ’s professional judgment. This is a privilege, not a right, and if abused will be taken away from the DJ. Remember: the DJ will be responsible for all guest actions in the studio. If a DJ loses visitor rights, the severity of lost privileges will be set forth by management.


Visitors Must Not…

Visitors are NOT allowed to pull or file any music PERIOD. The DJ may show them the collection, but in a strictly eyes only hands off manner. Visitors are not allowed to sit at the board or operate any studio equipment, except for the computer and studio phone. The DJ on the log is still responsible for the behavior of their guest on the phone, in the station (i.e., physical damage) and computer as well.


Guests on the Air

Visitors are allowed to go on the air and introduce songs, make comments, etc. However, the DJ is responsible for their words. Make sure they know what they can and cannot say before allowing them on the air.


DJ Punctuality, Attendance and Show Turnover.

Live DJs are KEOL’s greatest asset. Therefore, attendance and punctuality is of the utmost importance to our success! DJs are expected to show up at least 10 minutes prior to their show time (with a management recommendation of at least 20 minutes) to allow proper show preparation. Any arrangements for showing up earlier or later should be agreed upon by both DJs and the program director at the beginning of the term.


Tardiness Guidelines

Arriving in the studio 9 minutes 59 seconds or less prior to the start of a show is considered late. If a DJ has not arrived 10 minutes prior to their show and has not made late arrangements, the DJ on the log should email management regarding the late DJ. Please use the subject “Late DJ” for the email. Any arrangements need to be noted in the program log. If a DJ is more than 15 minutes late, without an excuse, the time slot becomes free to any DJ who would like to do a show. (For the remeinder of that show, not for all the term.)


Being Late for a Show

DJs who will be late need to make arrangements with the DJ before them. Not showing up prior to your start time, leaves the show time open for any DJ to take. DJs who are late with no notification are out of luck, and out of that particular show. Djs who are late when no live DJs precede them will need to follow the proper notification (1.7.2) to inform management of the tardiness.


Ending A Show/ Taking Over A Show

When a show is ending, the DJ needs to give up control of the board after the last song starts. The next DJ is responsible for the top of the hour ID and PSA. Therefore, the last song should not exceed 2 minutes past the hour. Choose material appropriately. The DJ assuming broad control may end a prior DJ’s song early if necessary to begin on time.


Show Term Length

DJs are responsible for their show time slot beginning from the staff meeting in which shows are picked until 11:59 p.m. on Saturday, week 10 of classes (see exception below).


Finals Week and Holidays

DJs are NOT responsible for their show times during finals week (beginning at 12:00 a.m. on Sunday morning) and Thanksgiving break (12:00 a.m. Wednesday to 11:59 p.m. Saturday night). At the end of each term, all show time slots are vacated until the first staff meeting of the new term. Special conditions can apply, see management for details. DJs with show times on holidays not listed are still responsible for that show time and subject to the proper notification policy (1.7.2) if unable to make that show.


Declaring Sub Status and Filling-in Shows

DJs not wishing to do a show during a term but wanting to remain on the service point list for future shows can declare “sub status” at the first staff meeting. No service points will be lost, but none will be generated either. Points may be earned for subbing or filling in at the rate of 0.5 service points per show, up to a maximum of 4.0 points per term. Those declaring sub status must still attend all staff meetings. Those who have declared sub status for three consecutive terms (summer excluded) must meet with management for supplemental equipment training and an hour air check to remain on the DJ list.


Subbed Show Defined

A “subbed show” is defined as a DJ being on the air when an active DJ is unable to make a scheduled show time. The subbing DJ may request to revive 0.5 service points per show subbed, up to a total of four points per term. Both “active” and “sub status” DJs may earn points for subbing.


Fill-in Show Defined

A “fill-in show” is defined as a DJ being on air for a minimum of one hour when no active DJ is scheduled. The fill-in DJ may request to receive 0.5 service points per show subbed, up to a total of four points per term. Both “active” and “sub status” DJs may earn points for filling in.


Staff Meetings

KEOL will facilitate at least one staff meeting each term. All staff members are required to attend every staff meeting. Meeting times and locations will be posted in the studio, on the website, and by an email notification at least one week prior to the meeting. Anyone who cannot attend a staff meeting must give written notice to the station manager 24 hours prior. A DJ sending someone in their stead is prohibited. Be responsible! DJs who miss two meetings without informing management will be removed from the seniority list, unless it is the first fall term meeting. DJs who do not make arrangements for missing the first fall term meeting without making arrangements with management will be removed from the seniority list. Traditionally, the first staff meeting of each term has been on the first Sunday after the term begins at 6pm in Hoke.


Staff Meeting Decorum

KEOL and Eastern Oregon University policies and procedures apply at all meetings. Disruptive DJs or staff members will be asked to leave and may incur disciplinary action, including suspension from the station. Disruptive behavior may include, but is not limited to, profane or offensive language, slander, putting down/making fun of DJs and/or their thoughts and ideas, continually speaking out of turn, usurping the meeting facilitator, or any other behavior that disrupts the order of the meeting or violates the EOU student codes of conduct. DJs may not be under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol during staff meetings. If a DJ or attendee is believed to be under the influence, they will be excused from the meeting and may face disciplinary action. A DJ removed from the first staff meeting of the term may be removed from the seniority list. A meeting will be held with management to discuss incidents.


Personal Safety

Staff safety is a major concern for EOU and the management of KEOL. We want DJs to feel safe and secure at all times. DJs are never required to open the main door or allow anyone inside the build apart from those who are management or the faculty advisor. (see 4.1.1). DJs have the right to ask anyone to leave the build except for management, the faculty advisor, the community liaison, and the music director or the next on air DJ. Campus security is available to walk DJs to their car or dorm if needed, and may be called anytime safety is in question. Security’s phone number is x23911 or 541-962-3911. Please notify management for any other questions about personal safety.


KEOL Property and Station Facilities (4.0.0)


Codes and Building Entry

KEOL now has a digital padlock at the entrance. If you want to gain entry to the building you must have an entry code provided by management. 


Gaining Entry Code to KEOL

All DJs are eligible to gain codes for entry to the KEOL station. Codes will be given at the beginning of every term to the DJs who attend the DJ meeting for that term regardless if they are active or sub status. Furthermore you will be required to sign the KEOL DJ Contract. By signing you agree to the responsibilities associated with full access to the KEOL Building and abiding by the policies and procedures.


Production Room

DJs will be allowed to use the production room once they have completed proper training. All policies and procedures for the production room will be given there.



If the station is going to be vacant for a period of time after a DJ leaves, the following steps must be taken, regardless of time of day:

  • Studio monitor turned down
  • Studio headphone amp turned off
  • Studio lights turned off
  • All doors secure and locked


Smoking, Alcohol and Drugs

KEOL has a zero tolerance policy for drugs and alcohol in the station. Oregon law prohibits smoking within ten feet of the building. No one is permitted to smoke or use any tobacco products inside KEOL. (This includes chewing tobacco) Failure to comply may result in disciplinary action.


Alcohol/Drug Use

DJs are not permitted in the station while under the influence of any alcoholic or illegal substance. This includes use of the production room and DJ lounge/listening area. DJs will be asked to leave and may face disciplinary action by KEOL and/or EOU


Care of the Music Library

KEOL has put in over 30 years building the music library. It is our pride and joy! Albums and CDs are filed in alphabetical order by group or artist’s name. DJs are responsible for re-filing anything they pull. Please take care when re-filing albums. A misplaced item is like a needle in a haystack. Something misfiled probably won’t be available next time anyone wants to play it. Anyone caught misfiling items will face disciplinary action.


Out of Station Music Use

Music is not to leave the station without prior written consent by the Station Manager, faculty advisor, or Program Director.


Removing Music from KEOL

Permission to remove music from KEOL must be typed, signed and presented to the KEOL staff member present prior to music being removed. Only the faculty advisor or the station manager may give permission to remove music from the station. There are no exceptions, including “I need those CDs for a theatre production I am doing,” “I am professor so and so and I need these CDs to teach my class,” or “It’s just an old record and I’ll bring it back in the morning.” No reason is acceptable other than “I have written permission from (one of the people listed above)” and accompanied by the signed written statement. Removing music without written permission will result in criminal charges, KEOL disciplinary action and/or EOU disciplinary action to the perpetrator and/or any DJs involved.


Grievance Procedures

Time spent at KEOL should be pleasant, enjoyable and educational. Management takes grievances very seriously, as do other members of the grievance system. Anyone who feels they have been treated unfairly should contact the station manager. The station manager will take the necessary steps/actions to resolve the issue. If the grievance is with the station manager, there are the following options:


Grievance procedures for current EOU students:

First contact is with the faculty advisor. If the faculty advisor cannot resolve the concern, the grievance then proceeds to the vice president for Student Affairs. The decision made there is final.


Grievance procedures for community volunteers:

First contact is the faculty advisor. If the faculty advisor cannot resolve the concern, the grievance then proceeds with the KEOL advisory board. The decision made there is final.


Disciplinary Action Grievances

If a grievance concerns a disciplinary action received, that grievance must be filed within five business days of receiving the disciplinary action. The rest of the grievance procedure will follow as outlined in sections 4.6.2 and 4.6.3.


KEOL-FM Underwriting Guidelines

Underwriting on KEOL is the process of acknowledging businesses and individuals that have donated funds to the station. Acknowledgment typically takes place on the air. It is illegal for businesses and individuals to “advertise” on KEOL. In order to distinguish between advertising and underwriting, the following guidelines have been adopted by KEOL, which were adapted from “Oregon Public Broadcasting Underwriting Guidelines” in 1991. In order for a donation acknowledgment to air on KEOL it must follow ALL of the following 6 guidelines.

  • Acknowledgments cannot be “sold”. This is a fine, but important, distinction. When working with the business or individual, the donation to the station comes first. Then the arrangements for the acknowledgment are made. For example, “We would like your donation to KEOL. We will then arrange an acknowledgment of your contribution.” Do not tell a prospective donor, “We will give you 10 spots if you give us $40.”
  • No pricing information can be used in the acknowledgment. Example: “free,” “$1.99,” or “ cheap.”
  • No calls to action are allowed. Example: “call us at 963-1234,” “stop by our store,” or any verb that tells the listener to do anything.
  • No qualitative language is allowed. Example: “quality merchandise,” “best pizza in town,” “our new cars.”
  • No quantitative language. Example: “biggest selection,” “most pepperoni.”
  • No comparative language. Example: “better selection,” “open longer,” “tastier crust.”

Any questions should be directed to KEOL-FM Management.

Any infraction to a stated KEOL policy or procedure may result in disciplinary action and may include removal from the air and/or other privileges.


Management Disciplinary System (5.0.0)


Disciplinary Action:

Both KEOL and Eastern Oregon University see discipline as a learning experience, not a punitive one. However, regardless of whatever the University or KEOL has as the consequences of violating the rules, DJs are still accountable for whatever FCC rules, federal, and state broadcasting laws that may have been violated. The penalties imposed by KEOL are in addition to whatever consequences may result from a violation of FCC broadcasting rules. Any accumulation of two separate infractions committed in the same time period automatically results in the next level of discipline for the infractions of whichever one has a higher step. Circumstances under which the infraction was committed will be considered.


Progressive Penalties:

(The Station Manager has the right to adjust penalties on case-to-case basis.)

Step 1: Loss of 15 seniority points and probation

Step 2: Loss of 15 seniority points and 2 hours CD filing to be completed before allowed to pick a show for next term

Step 3: Loss of 15 seniority points and no guests allowed in the studio for remainder of term; probation for following term

Step 4: Loss of 15 seniority points and suspension for remainder of term; must take and pass FM1 final exam before returning

Step 5: Removed from seniority list and banned for one year; must retake FM1 class before back on the air

Step 6: Permanently banned from KEOL. Forever. For-ev-er.



1. Profanity spoken over the microphone: Step 1, if repeated in next two terms, Step 5. If repeated after that, Step 6.

2. Profanity in a song during daytime: Step 1, if repeated in next two terms, Step 5. If repeated after that, Step 6.

3. Religious, political, or management editorial comment: Step 1, if repeated in next two terms, Step 5. If repeated after that, Step 6.

4. Failure to put away CDs: Step 2, if repeated in next two terms, Step 4. If repeated after that, Step 5. If again, Step 6.

5. Incomplete logs or playlist: Step 2, if repeated in next two terms, Step 4. If repeated after that, Step 5. If again, Step 6.

6. Leaving the station dirty: Step 1, if repeated in next two terms, Step 4. If repeated after that, Step 5. Again, Step 6.

7. Being rude to a caller: Step 1, if repeated in next two terms, Step 4. If repeated after that, Step 5. Again, Step 6.

8. Drunk or high while in station: Step 5. If ever again, Step 6.

9. Missing a show without notification at least 3 days in advance and sub request sent over listserve: Step 1, if repeated in next two terms, Step 4. If repeated after that, Step 5.

10. Missing a PSA or Station ID: Step 1, if repeated in next two terms, Step 4. If repeated after that, Step 5. Again, Step 6.

11. Stealing: Step 6.

12. Lying to management about any of the above infractions: Step 6.

13. Vandalism: Step 5, if ever again, Step 6



Chapter 2: FCC Rules and Regulations

The following are selections from the FCC document “The Public and Broadcasting” to give you a basic understanding of the FCC and how it functions.


The Communications Act The FCC was created by Congress in the Communications Act for the purpose of “regulating interstate and foreign commerce in communication by wire and radio so as to make available, so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex, a rapid, efficient, Nation‑wide, and world‑wide wire and radio communications service . . . .”  (In this context, the word “radio” covers both broadcast radio and television.)  The Communications Act authorizes the FCC to “make such regulations not inconsistent with law as it may deem necessary to prevent interference between stations and to carry out the provisions of [the] Act.”  It directs us to base our broadcast licensing decisions on the determination of whether those actions will serve the public interest, convenience, and necessity.


How the FCC Adopts Rules.  As is the case with most other federal agencies, the FCC generally cannot adopt or change rules without first describing or publishing the proposed rules and seeking comment on them from the public.  We release a document called a Notice of Proposed Rule Making, in which we explain the new rules or rule changes that we are proposing and establish a filing deadline for public comment on them. (All such FCC Notices are included in the Commission’s Daily Digest and are posted on our website at  After we have had a chance to hear from the public and have considered all comments received, we generally have several options.  We can: (1) adopt some or all of the proposed rules, (2) adopt a modified version of some or all of the proposed rules, (3) ask for public comment on additional issues relating to the proposals, or (4) end the rulemaking proceeding without adopting any rules at all.  You can find information about how to file comments in our rulemaking proceedings on our Internet website at  The site also provides instructions on how you can file comments electronically.  In addition to adopting rules, we also establish broadcast regulatory policies through the individual cases that we decide, such as those involving license renewals, station sales, and complaints about violations of FCC rules.


The FCC and Freedom of Speech.  The First Amendment, as well as Section 326 of the Communications Act, prohibits the Commission from censoring broadcast material and from interfering with freedom of expression in broadcasting.  The Constitution’s protection of free speech includes that of programming that may be objectionable to many viewer or listeners.   Thus, the FCC cannot prevent the broadcast of any particular point of view. In this regard, the Commission has observed that “the public interest is best served by permitting free expression of views.”  However, the right to broadcast material is not absolute.  There are some restrictions on the material that a licensee can broadcast.  We discuss these restrictions below.


Licensee Discretion.   Because the Commission cannot dictate to licensees what programming they may air, each individual radio and TV station licensee generally has discretion to select what its station broadcasts and to otherwise determine how it can best serve its community of license.  Licensees are responsible for selecting their entertainment programming, as well as programs concerning local issues, news, public affairs, religion, sports events, and other subjects. As discussed at page 29 of this Manual, broadcast licensees must periodically make available detailed information about the programming that they air to meet the needs and problems of their communities, which can be found in each station public file.  They also decide how their programs will be structured and whether to edit or reschedule material for broadcasting.  In light of the First Amendment and Section 326 of the Communications Act, we do not substitute our judgment for that of the licensee, nor do we advise stations on artistic standards, format, grammar, or the quality of their programming. Licensees also have broad discretion regarding commercials, with the exception of those for political candidates during an election and the limitations on advertisements aired during children’s programming (we discuss these respective requirements at pages 13-14, and 17 of this Manual).


 Criticism, Ridicule, and Humor Concerning Individuals, Groups, and Institutions.  The First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom of speech similarly protects programming that stereotypes or may otherwise offend people with regard to their religion, race, national background, gender, or other characteristics. It also protects broadcasts that criticize or ridicule established customs and institutions, including the government and its officials.  The Commission recognizes that, under our Constitution, people must be free to say things that the majority may abhor, not only what most people may find tolerable or congenial.  However, if you are offended by a station’s programming, we urge you to make your concerns known to the station licensee, in writing.


Programming Access.  In light of their discretion to formulate their programming, station licensees are not required to broadcast everything that is offered or otherwise suggested to them. Except as required by the Communications Act, including the use of stations by candidates for public office (discussed at pages 13-14 of this Manual), licensees have no obligation to allow any particular person or group to participate in a broadcast or to present that person or group’s remarks.



Broadcast Journalism

Introduction.  As noted above, in light of the fundamental importance of the free flow of information to our democracy, the First Amendment and the Communications Act bar the FCC from telling station licensees how to select material for news programs, or prohibiting the broadcast of an opinion on any subject.  We also do not review anyone’s qualifications to gather, edit, announce, or comment on the news; these decisions are the station licensee’s responsibility. Nevertheless, there are two issues related to broadcast journalism that are subject to Commission regulation:  hoaxes and news distortion.


Hoaxes.  The broadcast by a station of false information concerning a crime or catastrophe violates the FCC’s rules if:

  • the station licensee knew that the information was false,
  • broadcasting the false information directly causes substantial public harm, and
  • it was foreseeable that broadcasting the false information would cause such harm.

In this context, a “crime” is an act or omission that makes the offender subject to criminal punishment by law, and a “catastrophe” is a disaster or an imminent disaster involving violent or sudden events affecting the public.  The broadcast must cause direct and actual damage to property or to the health or safety of the general public, or diversion of law enforcement or other public health and safety authorities from their duties, and the public harm must begin immediately.  If a station airs a disclaimer before the broadcast that clearly characterizes the program as fiction and the disclaimer is presented in a reasonable manner under the circumstances, the program is presumed not to pose foreseeable public harm.  Additional information about the hoax rule can be found on the FCC’s website at


News Distortion.  The Commission often receives complaints concerning broadcast journalism, such as allegations that stations have aired inaccurate or one-sided news reports or comments, covered stories inadequately, or overly dramatized the events that they cover.  For the reasons noted above, the Commission generally will not intervene in such cases because it would be inconsistent with the First Amendment to replace the journalistic judgment of licensees with our own.  However, as public trustees, broadcast licensees may not intentionally distort the news:  the FCC has stated that “rigging or slanting the news is a most heinous act against the public interest.”  The Commission will investigate a station for news distortion if it receives documented evidence of such rigging or slanting, such as testimony or other documentation, from individuals with direct personal knowledge that a licensee or its management engaged in the intentional falsification of the news.  Of particular concern would be evidence of the direction to employees from station management to falsify the news.  However, absent such a compelling showing, the Commission will not intervene.  For additional information about news distortion, see


Political Broadcasting:  Candidates for Public Office.  In recognition of the particular importance of the free flow of information to the public during the electoral process, the Communications Act and the Commission’s rules impose specific obligations on broadcasters regarding political speech.


Reasonable Access.  The Communications Act requires that broadcast stations provide “reasonable access” to candidates for federal elective office. Such access must be made available during all of a station’s normal broadcast schedule, including television prime time and radio drive time.  In addition, federal candidates are entitled to purchase all classes of time offered by stations to commercial advertisers, such as preemptible and non-preemptible time.  The only exception to the access requirement is for bona fide news programming (as defined below), during which broadcasters may choose not to sell airtime to federal candidates.  Broadcast stations have discretion as to whether to sell time to candidates in state and local elections.


Equal Opportunities.  The Communications Act requires that, when a station provides airtime to a legally qualified candidate for any public office (federal, state, or local), the station must “afford equal opportunities to all other such candidates for that office.”  The equal opportunities provision of the Communications Act also provides that the station “shall have no power of censorship over the material broadcast” by the candidate.  The law exempts from the equal opportunities requirement appearances by candidates during bona fide news programming, defined as an appearance by a legally qualified candidate on a bona fide newscast, interview, or documentary (if the appearance of the candidate is incidental to the presentation of the subject covered by the documentary) or on–the–spot coverage of a bona fide news event (including debates, political conventions and related incidental activities).

In addition, a station must sell political advertising time to certain candidates during specified periods before a primary or general election at the lowest rate charged for the station’s most favored commercial advertiser.  Stations must maintain and make available for public inspection, in their public inspection files, a political file containing certain documents and information, discussed at page 28 of this Manual.  For additional information about the political rules, see


Objectionable Programming


Programming Inciting “Imminent Lawless Action.”  The Supreme Court has held that the government may curtail speech if it is both: (1) intended to incite or produce “imminent lawless action;” and (2) likely to “incite or produce such action.”  Even when this legal test is met, any review that might lead to a curtailment of speech is generally performed by the appropriate criminal law enforcement authorities, not by the FCC.


Obscene, Indecent, or Profane Programming.  Although, for the reasons discussed earlier, the Commission is generally prohibited from regulating broadcast content, the courts have held that the FCC’s regulation of obscene and indecent programming is constitutional, because of the compelling societal interests in protecting children from potentially harmful programming and supporting parents’ ability to determine the programming to which their children will be exposed at home.


Obscene material is not protected by the First Amendment and cannot be broadcast at any time. To be obscene, the material must have all of the following three characteristics:

  • an average person, applying contemporary community standards, must find that the material, as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest;
  • the material must depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable law; and
  • the material, taken as a whole, must lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.


Indecent material is protected by the First Amendment, so its broadcast cannot constitutionally be prohibited at all times.  However, the courts have upheld Congress’ prohibition of the broadcast of indecent material during times of the day in which there is a reasonable risk that children may be in the audience, which the Commission has determined to be between the hours of 6 a.m. and 10 p.m.  Indecent programming is defined as “language or material that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory organs or activities.”  Broadcasts that fall within this definition and are aired between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. may be subject to enforcement action by the FCC.


Profane material also is protected by the First Amendment, so its broadcast cannot be outlawed entirely. The Commission has defined such program matter to include language that is both “so grossly offensive to members of the public who actually hear it as to amount to a nuisance” and is sexual or excretory in nature or derived from such terms.   Such material may be the subject of possible Commission enforcement action if it is broadcast within the same time period applicable to indecent programming: between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m.