Seasonal Health Alerts

Seasonal Health Alerts

Fall/Winter

Do I Have the Flu or a Cold?

Signs and Symptoms Influenza Cold
Symptom onset Abrupt Gradual
Fever Usual; lasts 3-4 days Rare
Aches Usual; often severe Slight
Chills Fairly common Uncommon
Fatigue, weakness Usual Sometimes
Sneezing Sometimes Common
Stuffy nose Sometimes Common
Sore throat Sometimes Common
Chest discomfort, cough Common; can be severe Mild to moderate; hacking cough
Headache Common Rare

(www.flufacts.com, 2011)

Treatment

The common cold virus will last 2-14 days and there is no cure for it.  Getting enough rest, drinking plenty of fluids, and (if needed) using over-the-counter (OTC) medications can help.

The Influenza “flu” virus generally makes people feel worse than a cold and if you are sick, especially with a fever, stay home until a fever is gone for at least 24 hours.  The flu symptoms usually last about a week or two.  Complications can occur and consulting a medical professional can help you decide if you need to seek medical care.  Do I Need Antibiotics?

Prevention is Key

The best defense from the Influenza virus is a Flu Vaccine, which is now given by intramuscular or intradermal shots, or the nasal mist.  To avoid both the flu and a cold:

  • avoid close contact with anyone who is sick
  • washing your hands often and thoroughly
  • using alcohol-based hand sanitizer when you cannot wash your hands
  • avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth

Flu Vaccine Facts

 

Spring/Summer

Seasonal Allergies

Is It a Cold or an Allergy?

Symptoms Cold Airborne Allergy
Cough Common Sometimes
General Aches, Pains Slight Never
Fatigue, Weakness Sometimes Sometimes
Itchy Eyes Rare or Never Common
Sneezing Usual Usual
Sore Throat Common Sometimes
Runny Nose Common Common
Stuffy Nose Common Common
Fever Rare Never
Duration 3 to 14 days Weeks (for example,
6 weeks for ragweed or grass pollen seasons)
Treatment
  • Antihistamines
  • Decongestants
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines
  • Antihistamines
  • Nasal steroids
  • Decongestants
Prevention
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water
  • Avoid close contact with anyone with a cold
  • Avoid those things that you are allergic to,
    such as pollen, house dust mites,
    mold, pet dander, cockroaches
Complications
  • Sinus infection
  • Middle ear infection
  • Asthma exacerbation
  • Sinus infection
  • Asthma exacerbation

Source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Diagnosis

Testing for Allergies

Knowing exactly what you are allergic to can help you lessen or prevent exposure and treat your reactions. There are several tests to pinpoint allergies:

  • Allergy skin tests—Allergy skin testing is considered the most sensitive testing method and provides rapid results. The most common test is the “prick test,” which involves pricking the skin with the extract of a specific allergen, then observing the skin’s reaction.
  • Serum-specific IgE antibody testing—These blood tests provide information similar to allergy skin testing.

Treatment

For allergy sufferers, the best treatment is to avoid the offending allergens altogether. This may be possible if the allergen is a specific food, like peanuts, which can be cut out of the diet, but not when the very air we breathe is loaded with allergens, such as ragweed pollen. Air purifiers, filters, humidifiers, and conditioners provide varying degrees of relief, but none is 100 percent effective. Various over-the-counter or prescription medications offer relief, too.

  • Antihistamines. These medications counter the effects of histamine, the substance that makes eyes water and noses itch and causes sneezing during allergic reactions. Sleepiness was a problem with the first generation of antihistamines, but the newest drugs do not cause such a problem.
  • Nasal steroids. These anti-inflammatory sprays help decrease inflammation, swelling, and mucus production. They work well in combination with antihistamines and, in low doses for brief periods of time, are relatively free of side effects.
  • Cromolyn sodium. A nasal spray, cromolyn sodium can help stop hay fever, perhaps by blocking release of histamine and other symptom-producing chemicals. It has few side effects.
  • Decongestants. Available in capsule and spray form, decongestants thin nasal secretions and can reduce swelling and sinus discomfort. Intended for short-term use, they are usually used in combination with antihistamines. Long-term usage of spray decongestants can actually make symptoms worse, while decongestant pills do not have this problem.
  • Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy (allergy shots) might provide relief for patients who don’t find relief with antihistamines or nasal steroids. They alter the body’s immune response to allergens, thereby helping to prevent allergic reactions. Current immunotherapy treatments are limited because of potential side effects.

 

Read More “Managing Allergies” Articles
Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment / Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

Summer 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number 2 Page 20

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